Kamakura_Three

Kamakura Three

Engakuji was founded in 1282 to commemorate the destruction of the invading
Mongol fleet by the Kamikaze (Divine Wind). It is a major Zen training Monastery.

Hokaiji was built in 1335 to honor the memory of the defeated Hojo clan
(and to quell their ghosts, as 900 Hojo samurai committed seppuku rather than accept defeat).

The Ofuna Kannon is an enormous concrete Kannon statue on the hill above Ofuna
just outside Kamakura. It was built as a memorial to the Atomic Bomb victims of World War II.

         Engakuji            Hokaiji            Ofuna Kannon

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Images in this section are in a number of different Galleries on the Photoshelter website.
The Banner below leads to the Japan Collections page where a Gallery can be selected.

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There are 21 Galleries in the Photoshelter Japan Collection
— Engakuji, Hokaiji and Ofuna Kannon are in the following Gallery (Direct Link) —

Japan: Kamakura Temples 2
Hasedera, Engakuji, Kenchoji,
Kotoku-in, Hokaiji, Ofuna Kannon

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Engakuji
(Zuirokuzan Engaku Kosho Zenji)

Founded in 1282 by the Regent Hojo Tokimune, after repelling the Mongol invasions
of 1274 and 1281 (the second Mongol invasion was finally foiled by the storm called
the Divine Wind (Kamikaze, the origin of the term). The temple was established to
honor the souls of those on both sides who had perished in the conflict. He offered
the position of Abbot to the head priest of Kenchoji, Rankei Doryu to be founder, but
he died and Mugaku Sogen from China took the position after first filling in at Kenchoji.

Engakuji is second of the Five Mountains, the Great Zen Temples of Kamakura.

Engakuji is a major training monastery for Zen monks from all over Japan. It is also the oldest
remaining example of Tang Chinese architecture in Japan. The Shari-den is the oldest building
on the temple complex and is the only building in Kamakura designated as a National Treasure.
It enshrines a tooth of Shakyamuni (the  historical Buddha) and is not accessible most of the year.
Engakuji has the largest bell of the Kamakura temples, also a designated as a National Treasure.

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Engakuji Temple Marker 0871

Temple marker, with the shot timed to catch
the reflection of a visitor in the polished stone.
Just beyond the marker is the statue of Jizo (right).

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Engakuji Jizo 0872

Jizo Bosatsu is one of the most beloved
of Japanese deities, known to alleviate suffering
and as Master of the Six States of Reincarnation.

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Engakuji Sanmon Gate Detail 0883

The Sanmon (Mountain Gate) is a truly massive gate to the inner temple, rebuilt 1783-85.
Under the upper roof is a framed plaque with calligraphy by Emperor Fushimi (r. 1287-98).

The second story enshrines Juichimen (11-headed) Kannon and the 16 Rakan (Arhat disciples).

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Engakuji Sanmon Gate Detail 0889

The plaque indicates that the temple was under the Emperor’s patronage.

I took close detail shots of this gate, as the wood was quite dark and the sky behind
the gate was bright white, so any images of the full gate would not show much detail.

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Engakuji Sanmon Fushimi Calligraphy 0886c
(no linked image)

A detail crop of the plaque on the Sanmon with
calligraphy by Emperor Fushimi (1265-1317).
(It reads: Engaku Kosei Zenji)

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Engakuji Sanmon Gate Detail 0881

Detail of the Sanmon (mountain gate), aka
sangedatsumon (Three Gates of Enlightenment),
 the most important gate of a Zen Buddhist Temple.

The gate was constructed without the use of nails.

It is the only structure of the current temple
that survived the 1923 Kanto Earthquake. It
has been chosen as the setting of many novels.

 

Engakuji_SanmonGateDetail_0877


Engakuji Sanmon Gate Detail 0877

The support structure of the gate. Note the engraving on the interior horizontal beams.

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Engakuji Sanmon Gate Detail 0889

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Engakuji Shaka Nyorai 0890

Located in the Butsuden (Buddha Hall, main hall) is
this late Kamakura period Hokan Shaka Nyorai.
(Seated Shakyamuni with Jeweled Crown)

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Engakuji Yakushi Nyorai and Soseki 0905

Next to the Butsuden in the Senbutsujo (1699)
are wooden statues of Yakushi Nyorai and Soseki.
The thatched Senbutsujo was originally used as an
exercise hall, but is now used as a Meditation Hall.

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Engakuji Roof Detail 0896

Roof detail of the Dai-Hojo (head priest’s quarters).

One of the more elegant tiled roofs at Engakuji.
A number of the buildings have thatched roofs.

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Engakuji Karamon 0898
(Chokushimon)

Karamon = Gate with Kara Hafu roof
Kara Hafu = Chinese style arched gable
The intricate Karamon gate leads to the Hojo.


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Images in this section are in a number of different Galleries on the Photoshelter website.
The Banner below leads to the Japan Collections page where a Gallery can be selected.

PhotoshelterGallerySection


There are 21 Galleries in the Photoshelter Japan Collection
— Engakuji, Hokaiji and Ofuna Kannon are in the following Gallery (Direct Link) —

Japan: Kamakura Temples 2
Hasedera, Engakuji, Kenchoji,
Kotoku-in, Hokaiji, Ofuna Kannon

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Hokaiji
(Kinryuzan Shakuman-in Endon Hokaiji)

The Kamakura period ended with a bang. The Hojo had ruled for 130 years,
although they were technically shikken (regents) of the Kamakura Shogunate. They
were known for fathering the spread of Zen Buddhism and Bushido, and for decadence
and making decisions of national importance in secret meetings at private residences. They
gained power through guile... they were an offshoot of the arch-enemies of the Minamoto clan,
the Taira, but supported the extermination of their relatives by intermarrying with the Minamoto clan
and supporting Minamoto in battle. 18 years later, they usurped power after Minamoto Yoritomo died.

In 1333, the Hojo were betrayed by a vassal (Ashikaga Takauji) who was ordered to defeat the forces
of Emperor Go-Daigo... later in 1333 the 100,000-man army of Go-Daigo (headed by Nitta Yoshisada)
invaded Kamakura. The Hojo clan, all 900 members, committed seppuku rather than surrender.

Emperor Go-Daigo ordered Ashikaga Takauji, the 1st Ashikaga Shogun (Muromachi period),
 to build a temple in 1335 at the site of the Hojo residence as a memorial to the Hojo clan.

Hokaiji is one of the two Tendai sect temples in Kamakura.

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Hokaiji 0692

The stone path leads to the Hokaiji
entrance under the sakura in the distance.

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Hokaiji 0696

Senjamode (pilgrims to 1000 shrines) leave
these senjafuda prayer cards behind them.

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Hokaiji Tokuso Shrine 0702

Tataoki Hojo (the last Hojo regent) is enshrined in the Tokuso shrine.
The ghosts of the Hojo martyrs haunted the area after the 1333 mass-suicide,
and to pacify those ghosts this shrine was erected with a statue of Tataoki. Tokuso
means patrimonial head of the Hojo clan. This shrine survived the Meiji edicts
which separated shrines from the Buddist temples in the 19th century.

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Hokaiji Tokuso Shrine 0703

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Hokaiji Tokuso Shrine 0705

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Hokaiji Taishido 0704

In honor of Prince Shotoku (Shotoku Taishi). On the doors, the Imperial Chrysanthemum with 16 rays.
Inside is a partially visible statue of the Prince (only the upper part is visible). Prince Shotoku is considered
to be the founding father of Japanese Buddhism, and the Taishi-do was erected to honor his memory.

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Hokaiji Koma-inu Elephant 0701

Carved wood imaginary animals mounted on the beam ends.
Left is a flaming Koma-inu (Lion-dog, a protector of the temple).
Right is a Baku (the Eater of Nightmares), an elephant with claws.

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Hokaiji Main Hall 0708

In the Hondo (Main Hall) are displayed numerous ceremonial objects and statues.

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Hokaiji Jizo 0697

Statues carved in 1365 by Sanjo Hoin Ken-en, a famous Kyoto sculptor.
The Jizo Bosatsu is the first of the twenty-four-Jizo Pilgrimage in Kamakura.

Jizo Bosatsu is known in Japan for many different aspects.

One aspect is that he works to ease the suffering of those serving time in hell.
This is appropriate for a temple to the Hojo clan. He is flanked by statues of
Bonten and Taishakuten (Lord of the Center and ruler of the Deva Kings).
In front are statues of the Deva Kings, Fudo Myoo, and other deities.

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Hokaiji Jizo 0711

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Hokaiji Shoro Stele 0714

The Shoro (bell tower) with its cast bronze bell,
and a monolithic stele inscribed with the history of
Hokaiji and the defeat of the doomed Hojo clan.

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Hokaiji Hokyointo 0716

A Hokyointo (3-element stele) monument to the Hojo.


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Images in this section are in a number of different Galleries on the Photoshelter website.
The Banner below leads to the Japan Collections page where a Gallery can be selected.

PhotoshelterGallerySection


There are 21 Galleries in the Photoshelter Japan Collection
— Engakuji, Hokaiji and Ofuna Kannon are in the following Gallery (Direct Link) —

Japan: Kamakura Temples 2
Hasedera, Engakuji, Kenchoji,
Kotoku-in, Hokaiji, Ofuna Kannon

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Ofuna Kannon

OfunaKannon_1055c

Ofuna Kannon 1055c
(the full image is below)

The Ofuna Kannon-ji is on the hill above Ofuna Station, just one station north of
Kita-Kamakura Station (where most folks get off the JR train to visit Kamakura).
The enormous (29.39 m., 96.4 ft.) hand-poured reinforced concrete statue of Byakue
Kannon looms above the top of the hill, and is visible for a long way from the train. I had
seen it when going to and coming from Kamakura, and stopped this time on my way back
(fortunately, near sunset on a beautiful day) to see what it was. The statue was originally
intended to be a 330 foot seated statue of Kannon (including the 100 ft. pedestal),
the largest in the world when started in 1929, but the structure had to be changed
to a smaller bust when it was discovered that the ground on the edge of the hill
could not support the weight. Construction halted during the depression and
did not resume until 1954. The concrete was all hand-carried up the hill
and hand-poured... all 1900 tons. Big job. It was completed in 1961.

The temple contains a cenotaph to the Atomic Bomb victims,
including a Tower of Atomic Flame that has been continuously
burning since brought back from Hiroshima by Yamamoto Tatsuo
(who had been going to visit his uncle the morning of August 6th, 1945).
He got off the train and looked everywhere, but all he could find were burning
embers of his uncle’s house. He brought the flame back on a body warmer stick
to his home, where he lit a flame on a Buddhist altar and kept it until it was moved to
the Tower of Peace in Hoshino, from which this flame was lit. The cenotaph also contains
rocks and keloid tiles from ground zero at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, inscribed with 1000 cranes.

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Ofuna Kannon 1058

A temple visitor summits the stairs leading to the Kannon.

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Ofuna Kannon 1059

I also took another image, without the visitor...

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Ofuna Kannon 1047

Several closeups, with more or less of the surrounding foliage...
culminating with an extreme close-portrait of the Ofuna Kannon.

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Ofuna Kannon 1043
(slightly different angles in this pair)

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Ofuna Kannon 1049

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Ofuna Kannon 1055
(catching the long rays at sunset)

There are 14 images of the Ofuna Kannon available.

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Ofuna Sho-Kannon 1071, 1065
(Composite will open in a second window)

This sculpture of Sho-Kannon (the most pure and sacred form of Kannon)
is in a small garden at the base of the hill leading up to the Byakue Kannon.

Available as an XL Composite (3274 x 2577)

These images are also available separately.


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Images in this section are in a number of different Galleries on the Photoshelter website.
The Banner below leads to the Japan Collections page where a Gallery can be selected.

PhotoshelterGallerySection


There are 21 Galleries in the Photoshelter Japan Collection
— Engakuji, Hokaiji and Ofuna Kannon are in the following Gallery (Direct Link) —

Japan: Kamakura Temples 2
Hasedera, Engakuji, Kenchoji,
Kotoku-in, Hokaiji, Ofuna Kannon

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