TriumphalArches

Triumphal and Honorific Arches used to be all over Rome. There were many Honorific arches built by
Roman Generals during the Republican period who were honored with a Triumph, but none have survived.
The Triumphal Arches were built during the Imperial period, and were all dedicated to Emperors. The first
Emperor (Augustus) decreed that only Emperors would be granted a Triumph. By the fourth century AD
there were 36 Triumphal Arches in Rome, only three of which have survived to be shown on this page.

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Arch of Titus

Arch of Septimius Severus

Scenics: Capitoline side
Detail: Capitoline side
Detail: Northwest panel and frieze
Detail: Winged Victory and Scenic
Detail: Forum side
Detail: Pedestal Sculptures

Arch of Constantine (Scenic, North side)

Detail: Full North face
Scenics: South side
Detail: East Attic and Center

Scenic and Detail: South side
Scenic and Detail: Northwest
Scenic and Detail: Northeast
Detail: Central Arch reliefs

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The Banner below leads to the Rome Collections page where a Gallery can be selected.

Direct Link to the Gallery with images of Roman Triumphal Arches

There are a number of images in this section that are not yet on the Photoshelter site.
If an image you want is not yet uploaded, contact Ron Reznick (info at bottom of page).

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Arch_ofTitus_7244


Arch of Titus 7244
960 x 1290 (488 KB)

The Arch of Titus is a single-archway 1st century honorific arch on the Via Sacra,
between the Colosseum and the Forum Romanum. It shows the primary innovation of the
Roman Triumphal Arch: the use of a round arch and a square entablature in the same structure.
The Arch of Titus was the model for many of the triumphal arches erected since the 16th century,
including the Arc de Triomphe in Paris. It was built by Domitian in 82 AD, not long after the death
of his brother, to commemorate the victories of Titus (including the Siege of Jerusalem in 70 AD).

The fluted columns on both sides of the arch are original, and the Corinthian capitals have distinct
Ionic volutes (the earliest example of the composite capital, combining both orders). The unfluted
column on the far left is a 19th century restoration, and shows the composite order clearly.
The shallow blind window between the columns is also a 19th century restoration.

Winged Victories are displayed in the spandrels above the arch.

The south interior panel has the only contemporary images
of spoils of war taken from the Temple of Jerusalem.
The Menorah and Shofars are clearly shown. The
image of the Menorah was the model for the
one used in the Flag of the State of Israel.

This image shows the only remaining (mostly)
original side and inscription of the Arch of Titus.
Much of the rest of the arch is a modern restoration.
The arch was used in medieval walls of a fortified tower
built by the Frangipani family, who also built a fortified castle
inside the Colosseum around 1200. The original sculptures on the
sides of the arch were lost when it was built into the walls of the tower,
and the modern restoration was extensive on the opposite side of the arch.

Arch_ofSeverus_SSLuca_eMartina_3712


Arch of Severus SS Luca e Martina 3712
808 x 1290 (343 KB)

The Arch of Septimius Severus and the church of Santi Luca e Martina at the
Northwest (Capitoline) end of the Forum Romanum near the Temple of Saturn.

The Arch of Severus was the companion arch to the Arch of Augustus, the
Arch of Tiberius, and the Portico of Gaius and Lucius Caesar (shown below),
which were the only entrances to the Forum Romanum which were pedestrian
specific (other entrances were used and sometimes blocked by wagons).
There were steps in the raised arches to prevent wagons from entering.

Arch_ofSeverus_SSLuca_eMartina_3716


Arch of Severus SS Luca e Martina 3716
1500 x 1092 (587 KB)

The Arch of Septimius Severus and the church of Santi Luca e Martina from the Southwest
corner of the Arch. Images of Santi Luca e Martina can be seen on the Forum Romanum page.

The Arch of Severus is a three-archway triumphal arch built of Proconnesian white marble in 203 AD
to commemorate the victories of Severus and his sons Caracalla and Geta in the Parthian Campaigns
(194-95 and 197-99 AD). It stands at the northwest end of the Forum near the base of the Capitoline Hill.
Made of white marble on a travertine base, it owes its state of preservation to the church... the arch was
incorporated into a church, and when the church was re-founded at another location, the arch remained
church property. The marble was not used for other construction as many other ancient structures were.

A large chariot drawn by six horses with Septimius Severus, Caracalla and Geta and other statues on
horseback used to stand atop the arch, but the sculptures were lost in antiquity. Images remain on coins.

Arch_ofSeverus_3735


Arch of Severus 3735
1500 x 1092 (452 KB)

The final scenic image of the Arch of Septimius Severus, taken from the Northeast corner.
The marble arch is 23 meters tall, 25 meters wide, and 11.8 meters deep (75 x 82 x 39 ft).
The oldest arch remaining in Rome, the Proconnesian white marble was transported from
Marmara Island (this marble was the stylish material of the moment during Severus’ reign).
Below are a series of detail images showing the reliefs, inscription and pedestal sculptures.

The Parthians (Persian Empire) were a constant threat to the Romans, and as it controlled
the Silk Road, it also controlled commerce between the Roman Empire and the East. The
Parthian Empire at its height stretched between what is now Turkey and eastern Iran, and
it was constantly expanding westward, to encroach on the Kingdom of Armenia and Roman
territories (Rome was courting Armenia as a client state). The Parthians beat the Romans
in the decades of Julius Ceasar’s time, and ejected the Romans from the Levant. Marc
Antony later led a successful counterattack against them, and there were continuous
conflicts between the two empires during the Roman-Parthian Wars of 66 BC to
217 AD (the earliest part of what ended up being over 700 years of wars).

Arch_ofSeverus_detail_3734M


Arch of Severus detail 3734 M
1500 x 1290 (576 KB)

Detail of the Capitoline (Western) side of the arch, showing the coffered underside of the
central arch, the statue of Mars on the keystone, the Winged Victories in the spandrels, the
fluted columns with composite capitals (Corinthian capitals with Ionic volutes above the
acanthus leaves), part of the inscription (shown in detail below), and the reliefs and
frieze over the northwest side arch (shown in detail in the following image).

After the death of Septimius Severus, Caracalla and Geta succeeded him as joint Emperors,
but a little over one year into their reign, Caracalla (a notoriously unpleasant fellow) murdered his
brother Geta and instituted damnatio memoriae on him (erasing his memory from inscriptions).
The fourth line of the inscription on the attic referred to Geta, and it was changed. Caracalla
also took the opportunity to murder or proscribe over 20,000 of his political enemies on
the pretext that they supported Geta. Massacres were common under Caracalla.

Arch_ofSeverus_detail_3740M


Arch of Severus detail 3740 M
1065 x 1600 (556 KB)

A large (M-size) detail image of the relief and frieze over the northwest side arch.
The large panel details the approach of the Romans at Seleucia (Greek city on the Tigris
founded by Alexander the Great’s General Seleucus I, founder of the Seleucid Empire on
the death of Alexander). The Parthians are shown fleeing on horseback. The center section
shows the Parthians surrendering to Severus, and the upper part shows Severus entering
the conquered city. The frieze below the panel depicts Severus addressing the troops.
Note at the left of the frieze: the troops require wagons to carry off the spoils of war.

Below the frieze, in the spandrels above the arch are representations of river gods.

Arch_ofSeverus_detail_3745M


Arch of Severus detail 3745 M
1500 x 1290 (634 KB)

Winged Victory with Trophy and a winged representation of one of the four seasons in the
spandrel above the central arch. The keystone has a figure of Mars (god of war) at the top right.

Arch_ofSeverus_3746


Arch of Severus 3746
1500 x 1092 (567 KB)

The full scene of the image taken after the one above with the remains of the Domus Tiberiana
(Palace of Tiberius) on the Palatine Hill in the background. The scene cried out for an artsy shot.

Arch_ofSeverus_detail_3710


Arch of Severus detail 3710
1500 x 1092 (553 KB)

The opposite side of the arch (northeast section, facing the Forum Romanum). The panel
over the small arch is very deteriorated, but shows the Romans attacking the town of Edessa
with siege engines, King Abgar VIII surrenders in the central scene, and at the top Severus is
announcing the annexation of the region (Osrhoene) to the Roman Empire. Over the main arch
are Winged Victories with Trophies and representations of the Seasons, as on the other side.
On the Forum side, the figure of Mars on the keystone is intact, showing the ornate helmet.

Arch_ofSeverus_inscription_detail_3709


Arch of Severus inscription detail 3709
1500 x 1092 (531 KB)

Detail of the upper part of the arch from the Forum (Eastern) side. Note the deteriorated
condition of the left panel (both panels on this side of the arch are in pretty bad shape). The
inscription, however, is intact (on the other side, a window was cut in the attic). Note the fourth
line of text, where Caracalla removed Geta’s part of the inscription and replaced the text.

Arch_ofSeverus_ColumnPedestals_7384


Arch of Severus Column Pedestals 7384
1500 x 1092 (548 KB)

The pedestal sculptures on the Capitoline side (West), depicting captive Parthians.
Detail images of the western pedestals are below (eastern pedestals are too damaged).

Arch_ofSeverus_ColumnPedestal_7382


Arch of Severus Column Pedestal 7384
960 x 1290 (527 KB)

Note that the captive Parthians are not bound in the image above.
They were annexed to the Roman Empire, and were thus Romans.

Pedestal_detail_Arch_ofSeverus_3720


Pedestal detail Arch of Severus 3720
960 x 1290 (527 KB)

Detail of the pedestal shown in the previous image.
Note that the Romans escorting Parthians are civilians.
This is to emphasize that the Parthians are now Romans.

Pedestal_detail_Arch_ofSeverus_3722


Pedestal detail Arch of Severus 3722
979 x 1290 (454 KB)

The Parthian on the right is chained, but again he
is being escorted by a civilian rather than a soldier.

Pedestal_detail_Arch_ofSeverus_3726M


Pedestal detail Arch of Severus 3726 M
1000 x 1600 (433 KB)

M-size detail shot of another chained captive. The escort
is again a Roman in civilian dress (police rather than army).

Pedestal_detail_Arch_ofSeverus_3729M


Pedestal detail Arch of Severus 3729 M
1000 x 1600 (456 KB)

Another large (M-size) detail image of the unchained
Parthians on the left of the image shown directly above.

Arch_ofSeverus_night_3795M


Arch of Severus night 3795 M
1500 x 1290 (440 KB)

Detail of two reclining River Gods and the frieze over the coffered lateral arch,
framing the Arch of Titus and the Palatine Hill as night falls over the Roman Forum.

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Images in this section are in a number of different Galleries on the Photoshelter website.
The Banner below leads to the Rome Collections page where a Gallery can be selected.

Direct Link to the Gallery with images of Roman Triumphal Arches

There are a number of images in this section that are not yet on the Photoshelter site.
If an image you want is not yet uploaded, contact Ron Reznick (info at bottom of page).

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There are 18 Galleries in the Photoshelter Rome Collection

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Arch_ofConstantine_7167


Arch of Constantine 7167
1500 x 975 (521 KB)

The Arch of Constantine, from the Equestrian level of the Colosseum (early morning).

The most recent Roman Triumphal Arch, the Arch of Constantine is on Via Triumphalis
(the road triumphant Emperors used to enter Rome), standing between the Colosseum
and the Palatine Hill. It was built to commemorate Constantine’s victory over his enemy
 Maxentius at the Battle of Milvian Bridge in 312 AD during the civil wars after Diocletian
resigned (several generals claimed the title of Emperor). Erected in 315, it used reliefs,
medallions, statues, friezes and marble from monuments and buildings erected for or by
Marcus Aurelius, Hadrian and Trajan. Constantine was a great scavenger, but it is likely
that the architects used so many parts of earlier monuments and buildings because the
arch had to be finished in just over 2 years, and the lack of time for new artwork required
that they come up with ways to use what they had available. The use of material and art
from monuments associated with the ‘good emperors’ did create positive publicity.

Arch_ofConstantine_detail_7170


Arch of Constantine detail 7170
1500 x 1092 (557 KB)

Detail of the upper sections of the north side of the Arch of Constantine, from the Colosseum.

Note the round medallions above the frieze over the side arches. The eight medallions on the large
faces (four on each side) are from the time of Hadrian, and depict scenes of hunt and sacrifice. The
medallions all used to be framed with porphyry, which can still be seen on the northwest (the frames
of the other three pairs of medallions are missing). Detail shots of the medallions are shown below.

The Corinthian columns on each side are Numidian yellow marble. One of the pillars was removed
from the arch and taken to St. John in Lateran and replaced by a white marble column. Standing on
bases atop the columns in front of the attic are Dacian prisoners, probably from Trajan’s Forum. In
between each pair of Dacian prisoners are two relief panels on each side, taken from an unknown
monument to Marcus Aurelius. Detail on the panels is also shown further down on this page. Inside
the central archway are two large relief panels depicting Trajan’s Dacian wars, shown further below.
The frieze panels on the sides of the attic are also from Trajan’s Dacian Wars (detail images below).
The portrait busts inside the lateral archways are so deteriorated that I did not shoot them. Under the
medallions is a frieze that, along with the side medallions are the only parts of the arch which are
from Constantine’s time. Constantine’s architects were truly great scavengers of materials.

Arch_ofConstantine_6719


Arch of Constantine 6719
1500 x 1092 (517 KB)

The south side of the arch with the Colosseum in the background, shot in the afternoon.
Again note the missing porphyry framing for the medallions above the frieze. If you examine
columns on both sides closely, you will notice that the white marble column was such a good
match that the only reason I can think of that they took the Numidian marble column was that
they wanted the exotic (giallo antico) marble. Detail images are further down the page.

When the Roman Emperors entered the city in triumph, they would have a procession
where they would start at the Campus Martius near the Theater of Marcellus (see the
Forum Romanum page), travel through the Circus Maximus around the Palatine Hill
(both shown in the Scenery section), and along the Via Triumphalis past the Arch of
Constantine. Immediately after passing the Arch, they would turn on the Via Sacra,
travel past the Arch of Titus and the Arch of Septimius Severus to the Capitoline.

Arch_ofConstantine_AM_7131


Arch of Constantine AM 7131
1500 x 1092 (487 KB)

Another image of the south side, shot from the opposite angle and early in the morning.
I am sure you noticed the difference in the character of the light. Detail images shot both
early in the morning and in the afternoon are below with descriptions of parts of the arch.

Based upon excavations of the foundations, the theory has been proposed that the arch
was originally built during the time of Hadrian and remodeled extensively for Constantine
by replacing columns, rebuilding the attic, adding the parts from Trajan’s Dacian wars and
the Constantinian frieze and medallions, and adding some other marble and elements.
During the Middle Ages, the Arch was incorporated into a family fortification. In 1530,
Lorenzino de’ Medici (who assassinated his cousin Grand Duke Allesandro in 1537)
was banished from Rome for cutting off heads on the reliefs for fun. Lorenzino was
later murdered in Venice by Cosimo de’ Medici for killing the previous Duke. You
may want to stop by the Florence section for more Renaissance art and intrigue.

Arch_ofConstantine_EastAtticPanel_7126


Arch of Constantine East Attic Panel 7126
1500 x 1092 (533 KB)

The attic frieze on the East side, built of Pentelic marble (from the Greek mountain Penteliko,
which supplied the marble for the Acropolis and other ancient Athenian buildings). As with other
parts on the Arch, the head of the Emperor has been reworked to change Trajan to Constantine.
The four Trajan panels (the opposite side of the attic and the two panels in the center arch make
up the rest of the set) were all part of one large frieze 3 meters tall by 18 meters long, partly lost.

This section shows Dacians being attacked by a Roman cavalry charge led by Trajan (now Constantine).

Arch_ofConstantine_EastMedallion_Frieze_7127


Arch of Constantine East Medallion Frieze 7127
1500 x 966 (547 KB)

The medallion and frieze on the East side of the Arch are both from Constantine’s time.
The medallion shows the Chariot of Apollo (Sun God) rising from the sea. The frieze shows
Constantine’s return to Rome after the Battle of Ponte Milvio. Constantine is in the wagon at
left (his head was cut off by Lorenzino de’ Medici). He is accompanied by soldiers, further in
the frieze he walks into the city with legions and other soldiers. The artist shows Constantine
walking into the city rather than arriving in triumph probably because Constantine did not want
to appear triumphant over the Romans (he had just won a bloody civil war against Maxentius).

Chariot_of_theSun

(detail crop — no linked image)
 

Arch_ofConstantine_6724M


Arch of Constantine 6724 M
1500 x 1290 (604 KB)

A detailed close-crop of the South side taken in the afternoon. This image shows very
good detail of the entire South face, and it also sets up the forthcoming detail shots well.

I have linked this image to open in a second window or tab so you can leave
it open for reference while examining detail images of the South face below.

The South face and North face are laid out in a similar fashion, with Dacian prisoners
from Trajan’s period atop the columns, flanking two relief panels on each side from
Marcus Aurelian’s period. The roundels above the frieze are from Hadrian’s period
and the frieze itself is from Constantine’s period. Detail and more information below.

Arch_ofConstantine_AM_detail_7129c


Arch of Constantine AM detail 7129c
960 x 1290 (577 KB)

I am showing images from the morning and afternoon of the Southeast face from different angles. The angle and different contrast allows you to see different detail and dimensionality. The relief panels between the prisoners (Aurelian period) show (left): the Emperor speaking to the troops; (right): the Emperor is sacrificing a pig, sheep and bull. The roundels above the frieze (Hadrian period) show (left): a hunt of a bear; (right) sacrifice to Diana (heads changed to Constantine’s).

Arch_ofConstantine_detail_6735M


Arch of Constantine detail 6735 M
1000 x 1560 (567 KB)

The frieze above the archway depicts the decisive Battle of Ponte Milvio, where Maxentius was defeated. The bridge is at the far left, and the rest of the scene shows the battle scenes, the drowning of Maxentius, and at far right, recall of the troops.

Arch_ofConstantine_detail_6718c


Arch of Constantine detail 6718c
960 x 1290 (495 KB)

The Southwest face of the arch, taken in the afternoon.
You may also want to use image 6724 M to achieve a
different angle for more detail of parts of the scenes.

Dacian prisoners stand atop the Numidian yellow marble Corinthian columns. Between the Dacian prisoners are two panels from the period of Marcus Aurelius. The left panel shows Marcus Aurelius, accompanied by his son-in-law Pompeianus (a General who distinguished himself in battles against the German tribes, who three times refused the Imperial robes) standing on a podium. In front of the podium is a group presenting a captured enemy chieftain (the king of the Germanic tribe) to pay tribute to the Emperor. The right panel depicts Marcus Aurelius and Pompeianus on a lower podium, being approached by a group of soldiers with flags who bring the Emperor a bound  prince of the Germanic tribes.

The left roundel (medallion) depicts the Emperor preparing to depart for a hunt. The right medallion shows the Emperor sacrificing to Silvanus (Roman god of Woods and Fields).

The frieze depicts the Siege of Verona, an extremely important part of the battle for northern Italy. Constantine is on the left, with Winged Victory floating overhead. In the center are soldiers attacking the walls, while on the right defenders of the walls are shown preparing to throw stones (the walls are depicted as very low, implying the ease of victory).

In the spandrels over the small arch are reclining river gods.

Arch_ofConstantine_WingedVictories_3770


Arch of Constantine Winged Victories 3770
1446 x 1092 (486 KB)

Detail of the Winged Victories with Trophies in the spandrels above the South side of the central arch.

Arch_ofConstantine_AM_7118


Arch of Constantine AM 7118
1500 x 1092 (465 KB)

A close scenic view of the entire North face, taken early in the morning.
Behind the arch is the Palatine Hill, where the Emperors built their Palaces.
The word for Palace is derived from the name of this hill (I am sure you guessed).

Note that the roundels (medallions) on the Northwest side still have their porphyry framing.

Arch_ofConstantine_northdetail_7170M


Arch of Constantine north detail 7170 M
1765 x 775 (456 KB)

An extra-wide detail crop of the center section of the arch, taken from the Colosseum.

I have linked this image to open in a second window or tab so you can leave
it open for reference while examining detail images of the South face below.

Arch_ofConstantine_northdetail_7120M


Arch of Constantine north detail 7120 M
1065 x 1600 (456 KB)

Two M-sized images with different angles of the Northwest section, shot at two times of day for different contrast and dimensionality. The Aurelian panels depict (left): the Emperor, seated on a high podium, performs Largitio (largess), giving money to the people. On this panel, the image of Aurelius’ son Commodus has had his head removed after damnatio memoriae (erasing his memory) was imposed by the Senate; (right): the Emperor with Pompeiano is on a high podium and gestures with clemency towards a barbarian chieftain who has his arm around his young son’s shoulder.

Arch_ofConstantine_northdetail_3762M


Arch of Constantine north detail 3762 M
1065 x 1695 (621 KB)

The Northwest medallions are still framed with the original porphyry, which is missing from all of the other medallions. The left medallion depicts a lion hunt (the lion can be seen at the bottom of the panel). Commodus’ face has been erased; the right medallion shows the Emperor sacrificing to Hercules, and here, Commodus’ entire head has been chipped off. The frieze shows Constantine performing Largitio (largess), giving money to the people (Lorenzino cut his head off here too).

Arch_ofConstantine_reliefdetail_3766


Arch of Constantine relief detail 3766
1500 x 1092 (542 KB)

A tight crop on the Northwest Aurelian panels from a third angle. This image
shows additional dimensionality and much more detail of the relief panels.

Arch_ofConstantine_8210


Arch of Constantine 8210
1500 x 1092 (511 KB)

A rather difficult backlit late afternoon shot taken from directly in front of the North face.
This was difficult to process as well, but it was worth it for the even lighting on the face.

Arch_ofConstantine_DacianPrisoners_detail_7122M


Arch of Constantine Dacian Prisoners detail 7122 M
1469 x 1290 (511 KB)

A tight shot taken in the early morning of the Dacian prisoners on the Northeast face.
This image also shows good detail of the Aurelian panels and the quality of the relief work.

Arch_ofConstantine_detail1_3767


Arch of Constantine detail 1 3767
1350 x 1175 (493 KB)

A different angle of the Aurelian panels. The left panel shows the Emperor entering the city, with Winged Victory overhead carrying a wreath, flanked by Mars (god of War) and Virtus (the goddess of Courage), inviting him to the Door of Triumph. Behind him are the Temple of Fortuna and the Temple gods. The right panel shows the Emperor leaving the city surrounded by the Genius (spirits) of the Senate and of the Roman People, saluted by a personification of Via Flaminia.

Arch_ofConstantine_detail2_3767M


Arch of Constantine detail 2 3767M
1500 x 1290 (619 KB)

The left medallion of Hadrian depicts a boar hunt. The right medallion shows the Emperor sacrificing to Apollo.

The frieze shows Constantine speaking to the people from the Rostra in the Forum Romanum. In the background are the Basilica Julia, the Arch of Tiberius and the Arch of Severus. The Emperor is seated in the center, and again, Lorenzino cut off Constantine’s head. Little wonder that he was banished.

Arch_ofConstantine_InnerFrieze_6726


Arch of Constantine Inner Frieze 6726
751 x 1290 (371 KB)

Detail of the central arch relief taken in the afternoon with
the Colosseum (and Colosseum crowd) in the background.
Descriptions are given under the composite image below.

Arch_ofConstantine_InnerFrieze_7235


Arch of Constantine Inner Frieze 7235
737 x 1290 (364 KB)

Detail of the other central arch relief of Trajan, taken in
the dramatic light of early morning with the Palatine Hill.

Arch_ofConstantine_Inner_Frieze_6727_6732M


Arch of Constantine Inner Frieze 6727, 6732 M
1500 x 1200 (589 KB)

Available as an XL Composite (3264 x 2373)

Composite will open in a second window or tab.

Made of Pentelic marble from the Greek mountain Penteliko, which supplied the marble for the
Acropolis and other ancient Athenian buildings, the panels were part of one large frieze 3 meters tall
 by 18 meters long, now partly lost. The work was compared to the reliefs on Trajan’s Column, and it has
been determined that the reliefs were created or at least designed by the same sculptor. The left panel,
labeled “Liberatoriurbis” depicts Trajan entering Rome. The right panel labeled “Fundatoriquietis
depicts the conquest of a Dacian village and Roman infantry pushing prisoners. The bases of
the Numidian columns show Victory figures on the front and Roman soldiers on the sides.

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Images in this section are in a number of different Galleries on the Photoshelter website.
The Banner below leads to the Rome Collections page where a Gallery can be selected.

Direct Link to the Gallery with images of Roman Triumphal Arches

There are a number of images in this section that are not yet on the Photoshelter site.
If an image you want is not yet uploaded, contact Ron Reznick (info at bottom of page).

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There are 18 Galleries in the Photoshelter Rome Collection

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