TrajansMarket_Forums

Trajan’s Forum and Markets (and the Forum of Augustus) are located near the Forum Romanum
in the oldest part of Rome. Trajan’s Forum was the last of the Imperial Forums, and was built by
Apollodorus of Damascus, the most famed architect of his time. Trajan’s Market has long been
thought of as the world’s oldest shopping mall, but recently scholars have considered the lack
of easy access to large-scale transportation of goods and decided that it must have been an
administrative complex for Trajan’s government. This page shows exterior details of Trajan’s
Market, parts of Trajan’s Forum, and the Forum of Augustus at the east end of Trajan’s Forum.

Click an image to open a larger version.
Use your back button to return to this page.

Trajan’s Market panoramic view

Medieval Cellars

Great Hemicycle (Trajan’s Market)

Trajan and Trajan’s Column

Forum of Augustus

Forum of Nerva

Sunburst3

Images in this section are in a number of different Galleries on the Photoshelter website.
The Banner below leads to the Rome Collections page where a Gallery can be selected.

Direct Link to the Gallery with images from this Page

There are a number of images in this section that are not yet on the Photoshelter site.
If an image you want is not yet uploaded, contact Ron Reznick (info at bottom of page).

PhotoshelterGallerySection


There are 18 Galleries in the Photoshelter Rome Collection

Sunburst3
Trajans_Forum_Market_6673


Trajan’s Forum Market 6673
1600 x 675 (317 KB)

On the left, the Great Hemicycle of Trajan’s Market, and on the right the Casa dei Cavalieri di Rodi.
Casa dei Cavalieri di Rodi is the House of the Knights of Rhodes (Knights Hospitaller of Rhodes and Malta).
It is the world’s oldest surviving order of chivalry, and although they were ejected from the Middle East
at the end of the last Crusade, they operated from Rhodes and later from Malta, and even after
Napoleon had removed them from Malta in 1798, they are still granted sovereignty status by
international law, and the United Nations had given them permanent observer status.

 

Trajans_Forum_Market_6675


Trajan’s Forum Market 6675
1500 x 1092 (556 KB)

The full view showing the foreground excavations. In medieval times, people built houses on
the site of Trajan’s Forum, and recent excavations have unearthed medieval cellars with ancient
Roman pavement  underneath. These cellars are shown in the foreground of this image.

In the distance, left center, is the Torre delle Milizie, Rome’s primary medieval tower.
The Tower of the Militia is a 50 meter tall square tower dating from about 1200. It was built
using antique construction materials scavenged from early Roman edifices (as per Raphael).
The tower was damaged in a major earthquake in 1348, causing it to lean to the right.

TrajansForum_MedievalCellars_6668


Trajan’s Forum Medieval Cellars 6668
1500 x 1092 (762 KB)

Detail of the medieval cellars, with the
ancient Roman pavement in the foreground.

TrajansMarket_night_3836


Trajan’s Market at night 3836
1500 x 1092 (428 KB)

The Great Hemicycle of Trajan’s Market
and the Torre delle Milizie floodlit at night.

TrajansMarket_GreatHemicycle_6666


Trajan’s Market Great Hemicycle 6666
1500 x 1092 (560 KB)

Trajan’s Market was built in 100-110 AD by Apollodorus of Damascus, who excavated the Quirinal Hill
to provide space for the enormous complex. It is built from concrete faced with bricks and has a concrete
vaulted roof raised on piers. The upper levels were built in the Middle Ages along with Torre delle Milizie.

TrajansMarket_GreatHemicycle_6665


Trajan’s Market Great Hemicycle 6665
1500 x 1092 (605 KB)

Looking into the openings at the end of the Hemicycle. You can see the end of the vaulted roof structure.
The complex was open to the air and light, allowing a breeze in to combat the heat of the Roman summers.

TrajansMarket_GreatHemicycle_6667


Trajan’s Market Great Hemicycle 6667
1500 x 966 (487 KB)

The medieval apartments rising above the upper level of Trajan’s Market.

Trajan’s Forum and Market were built with funds gained as war spoils from the Dacian Wars.

Trajan_3754


Trajan 3754
960 x 1290 (398 KB)

Bronze statue of Trajan standing on Via dei Fori Imperiali, a modern copy of an ancient
Roman statue. The base states that it was erected in the 11th year of Fascist rule (1933-34).

TrajansColumn_detailCrops_6636M


Trajan’s Column detail crops 6636 M
1400 x 1200 (510 KB)

Detail crops of Trajan’s Column taken from three images (see the Churches section,
under Nome di Maria; and Scenery, Victor Emmanuel II Monument for the full images).

The statue at the top was originally supposed to be a bird (probably an eagle), but after
construction a statue of Trajan was placed there, which disappeared in the Middle Ages.
In 1587, Pope Sixtus V had the bronze statue of St. Peter mounted on the column.

Trajans_Column

Trajan’s Column
1000 x 2910 (1497 KB)

— Note the file size —
The image will open in a second window or tab.

This image is provided for your personal use only.
It depicts a highly detailed section of Trajan’s Column
with bas-reliefs of Trajan’s Dacian Wars (101-02, 105-06).
 

Trajan’s Column is roughly 30 meters (98 feet) tall, hollow in the interior, with a spiral staircase (185 steps) leading to a viewing platform at the top. The platform uses the 53 ton capital block as its floor (34 meters above ground level).

The scenes on the spiraling frieze show the Roman Army engaged with Dacians and in other military activities, such as construction. There are detailed images of ships and ancient armaments as well as numerous figures in battle dress. Trajan also appears in several scenes.

The helical stairway was built from 19 blocks of marble, making a full turn every 14 steps (rather than the usual 12 or 16 steps, requiring complex geometry). Before the use in the column, spiral stairs were rarely seen, but afterwards, the space-saving character of the design was used throughout the Empire. The design of the column itself also inspired many similar columns, including the column Napoleon erected in Place Vendome, the Column of Marcus Aurelius, the Column of Arcadius, and others.

— This image is for your personal use only —

Temple_MarsUltor_Forum_ofAugustus_6686


Temple of Mars Ultor Forum of Augustus 6686
1500 x 1092 (560 KB)

After the assassination of Julius Caesar in 44 BC, Octavian (his adopted son) was named his
heir and successor, and formed a triumvirate with Marc Antony and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus
(Caesar’s Master of the Horse, effectively his deputy). During the Battle of Phillipi in 42 BC, the
battle which finally defeated the assassins of Caesar, Octavian vowed to create a temple to the
Roman God of War, Mars. He became the first Emperor of Rome in 27 BC under the name of
Augustus, and created the Forum of Augustus and the temple of Mars Ultor (Mars Avenger).

One of the major features of the Forum of Augustus, (just east of the site of Trajan’s Forum) is
the enormous fireproof wall at the back, laid out in opus quadratum (square blocks) made of
lava stone and tuff. Disastrous fires were an occasional problem in Rome (as elsewhere), and
Octavian wanted the forum to be protected. It was built on a larger scale than the previous Forum
of Caesar, but it had to be cut back from the plans when Octavian had trouble acquiring the land he
needed from some recalcitrant owners. At the far right of the image is the remaining part of a massive
exedra (arched architectural structure) which was removed to allow the formation of the Forum of Nerva,
details of the rear of the exedra are shown two images down, and the Forum of Nerva is detailed below).

Temple_MarsUltor_Forum_ofAugustus_detail_6678c


Temple of Mars Ultor Forum of Augustus detail 6678c
1500 x 1092 (660 KB)

Detail of the Temple of Mars Ultor and the Arco dei Pantani (Arch of Panatus) to the right
of the columns (which acted as the entrance to the forum, through the firewall, along with the
three-arch entrance seen on the other side of the temple). A Monastery was built on the podium
of the temple in the 9th century (St. Basil’s). All that remains now of the massive entablature are the
four columns seen above and the architrave above them, along with some fragmentary columns.

Temple_MarsUltor_Forum_ofAugustus_3678


Temple of Mars Ultor Forum of Augustus 3678
1500 x 1092 (583 KB)

A view across the Forum of Augustus shot from the site of the Temple of Minerva in
the Forum of Nerva (the pile of stone in the center foreground is all that remains of the
Temple of Minerva). In the foreground right is the rear of the remaining part of the exedra
at the southeast of the Forum of Augustus, which was removed to form the Forum of Nerva,
and the face of the left portion of the Porticus Absidata, the large exedra northeast of the
Temple of Minerva containing the massive entrance arch leading to the populated
area called the Suburra, behind the firewall. Note the construction details.

Peristyle_Forum_ofNerva_6689


Peristyle Forum of Nerva 6689
795 x 1290 (348 KB)

Built by Domitian as a transitory forum between the Suburra (the densely populated area beyond the firewall) and the Forum Romanum, it was officially opened in 97 AD by his successor (Nerva), thus the name. The volcanic tuff was once covered with marble. A peristyle is a columned portico. This is sometimes called “the Colonnace”, or open colonnade. The peristyle is a Greek term for an ancient Egyptian colonnade.

Peristyle_Forum_ofNerva_6681


Peristyle Forum of Nerva 6681
795 x 1290 (337 KB)

The frieze on the entablature details the myth of Arachne, the mortal weaver who boasted that her skills were greater than those of Minerva (whose temple was next to the peristyle). The goddess set up a contest, and was envious of the tapestry  Arachne created (and offended by her subject, the loves of the gods). Minerva slashed the tapestry and Arachne’s face, and then turned her into a spider (arachne = spider in Greek).

Peristyle_Forum_ofNerva_detail_6681


Peristyle Forum of Nerva detail 6681
960 x 1290 (410 KB)

Detail of the tale of Arachne on the frieze, and the statue of Minerva on the attic.

Peristyle_Forum_ofNerva_detail_6689M


Peristyle Forum of Nerva detail 6689 M
1500 x 1290 (560 KB)

Further detail of the entablature frieze with the tale of Arachne.

Return to the top of this page

Sunburst3

Images in this section are in a number of different Galleries on the Photoshelter website.
The Banner below leads to the Rome Collections page where a Gallery can be selected.

Direct Link to the Gallery with images from this Page

There are a number of images in this section that are not yet on the Photoshelter site.
If an image you want is not yet uploaded, contact Ron Reznick (info at bottom of page).

PhotoshelterGallerySection


There are 18 Galleries in the Photoshelter Rome Collection

Sunburst3

Return to the Forum Area index page

ForumArea_display

Open the Master Index on the Rome Select page

RomeSelect
Content_
Contact_RR